La base de datos de productos químicos de la Universidad de Akron: conocer la materia para usarla en nuestro beneficio

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En muchas cosas se nota que los Estados Unidos y algunos países europeos van muy por delante de los países iberoamericanos en el desarrollo de la química.  Un ejemplo es la extraordinaria base de datos de productos químicos y sus riesgos creada por el Departamento de Química de la Universidad de Akron. Llevar a cabo un trabajo como el que se necesita para construir esa base de datos parece que solo está al alcance de países que verdaderamente comprenden la importancia de la ciencia no solo para mejorar su bienestar general, sino en beneficio de economía. Este es el enlace a dicha base de datos: ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd.

Su funcionamiento es muy simple. Se trata de un buscador donde pueden escribir el nombre de cualquier elemento o compuesto químico (en inglés, claro). Supongamos que quieren saber cosas del bromo y las precauciones que deben tener para usarlo. Escriben en el buscador bromine y les aparece esto:

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Bromine****
Bromine CAS: 7726-95-6 Formula: Br2 PubChem: 24408 EC (EINECS/ELINCS): 231-778-1 EC Index Number: 035-001-00-5 RTECS: EF9100000 UN: 1744 Merck: 13,1378 Beilstein/Gmelin: 1182 (G) EPA OPP: 8701 Swiss Giftliste 1: G-2164 USCG CHRIS Code: BRX HS Code: 2801 30 90 Std. Transport No.: 4936110
http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/Chemicals/8000/6169.html 09/27/10, 531 bytes
Bromine trifluoride****
Bromine trifluoride CAS: 7787-71-5 Formula: BrF3 Bromine fluoride PubChem: 24594 EC (EINECS/ELINCS): 232-132-1 RTECS: EF9360000 UN: 1746 Merck: 12,1417 Beilstein/Gmelin: 1884 (G) USCG CHRIS Code: BTF Std. Transport No.: 4918507
http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/Chemicals/8000/6171.html 09/27/10, 449 bytes
Bromine chloride****
Bromine chloride CAS: 13863-41-7 Formula: BrCl Bromine monochloride PubChem: 61697 EC (EINECS/ELINCS): 237-601-4 RTECS: EF9220000 UN: 2901 Beilstein/Gmelin: 1094 (G) EPA OPP: 20504 Std. Transport No.: 4920715
http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/Chemicals/2000/235.html 09/27/10, 416 bytes
Bromine pentafluoride****
Bromine pentafluoride CAS: 7789-30-2 Formula: BrF5 PubChem: 24606 EC (EINECS/ELINCS): 232-157-8 RTECS: EF9350000 UN: 1745 Merck: 12,1416 Beilstein/Gmelin: 26349 (G) USCG CHRIS Code: BPF Std. Transport No.: 4918505
http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/Chemicals/8000/6170.html 09/27/10, 421 bytes
Bromine azide****
Bromine azide CAS: 13973-87-0 Formula: BrN3 Nitrogen bromide Bromine nitride PubChem: 26364 Beilstein/Gmelin: 224472 (G)
http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/Chemicals/22000/20537.html 09/27/10, 266 bytes
Cyanogen bromide*
Cyanogen bromide CAS: 506-68-3 Formula: CBrN Bromine cyanide Bromocyanide Cyanobromide Carbononitridic bromide PubChem: 10476 EC (EINECS/ELINCS): 208-051-2 RTECS: GT2100000 UN: 1889 Merck: 12,2763 Beilstein/Gmelin: 1697296 Beilstein Reference: 4-03-00-00092 RCRA: U246 Swiss Giftliste 1: G-1296 USCG ...
http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/Chemicals/8000/6336.html 09/27/10, 649 bytes
Rubidium chlorobromo bromide*
Rubidium chlorobromo bromide CAS: 36491-26-6 Formula: Br2ClRb Rubidium bromide – bromine chloride adduct PubChem: 23686678 UN: 1450 Beilstein/Gmelin: 315380 (G)
http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/Chemicals/6000/5584.html 09/27/10, 337 bytes
Bromopyrogallol Red*
... (5-bromo-2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)toluenesulfonic acid 2′,7′-Dibromo-1,1-dioxospiro[benzo[c]oxathiole-3,9′-xanthene]-3′,4′,5′,6′-tetrol Pyrogallol bromine red PubChem: 85495 EC (EINECS/ELINCS): 240-632-6 Beilstein/Gmelin: NA
http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/Chemicals/18000/16570.html 09/27/10, 611 bytes

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Como ven, cada entrada tiene un enlace. Si pulsamos en el primero llegaremos a una nueva página que nos dejará pocas dudas sobre lo que es el bromo y cómo podemos tratarlo adecuadamente para que no nos cause ningún problema:

Bromine
Formula Br2
Structure
Description Dark reddish-brown, fuming liquid with suffocating, irritating fumes, lachrymator.
Uses In water disinfection, bleaching fibers and silk, manufacture medicinal bromine compds, dyestuffs.

 

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS 7726-95-6
NIH PubChem CID 24408
EC (EINECS/ELINCS) 231-778-1
EC Index Number 035-001-00-5
EC Class T+; R26, C; R35, N; R50
RTECS EF9100000
RTECS class Human Data
UN (DOT) 1744
Merck 13,1378
Beilstein/Gmelin 1182 (G)
EPA OPP 8701
Swiss Giftliste 1 G-2164
Canada DSL/NDSL DSL
US TSCA Listed
Austrailia AICS Listed
New Zealand Listed
Korea ECL Listed
Philippiens PICCS Listed
Israel Listed

 

Properties.
Formula Br2
Formula mass 159.82
Melting point, °C -7.2
Boiling point, °C 58.7
Vapor pressure, mmHg 190 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1) 5.5
Saturation Concentration 23% (230,000 ppm) at 20 C (calculated)
Odor threshold 0.05-3.5 ppm
Critical temperature 315
Critical pressure 102
Density 3.121 g/cm3 (25 C)
Solubility in water Insoluble
Viscosity 0.314 sq mm/s
Surface tension 40.9 g/s2 @ 25 C
Thermal expansion 0.00103819/K
Heat of fusion 120.1 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 30.0 kJ/mol

 

Hazards and Protection.
Storage Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Do not store near combustible materials. Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Corrosives area. Keep away from reducing agents. Loosen closure cautiously before opening.
Handling Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with clothing and other combustible materials. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Discard contaminated shoes.
Protection Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA’s eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear a chemical apron. Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Use water spray to disperse the gas/vapor. Remove all sources of ignition. Absorb spill with an alkaline material such as soda ash or lime. Carefully scoop up and place into appropriate disposal container. Provide ventilation. Do not get water inside containers.
Stability Stable under normal shipping and handling conditions.
Incompatibilities Reducing agents.
Decomposition Irritating and toxic fumes and gases, hydrogen bromide.

 

Fire.
Flash Point,°C -18
Fire fighting Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Strong oxidizer. Contact with combustible materials may cause a fire. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water with caution and in flooding amounts. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. Will react with water to form toxic and corrosive fumes. Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Extinguishing media: Do NOT get water inside containers. For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or water spray. For large fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam, or water spray. Contact professional fire-fighters immediately.
Fire potential Nonflammable. Strongly oxidizing. Heat of reaction may cause ignition of combustible materials.
Hazards Will cause ignition of organic materials spontaneous ignition possible when combined with potassium, phosphorus and tin and a wide variety of other chemicals. It reacts explosively with acetylene, acrylonitrile, ammonia, dimethyl formamide, ethyl phosphine, hydrogen, isobutyrophenone, nickel carbonyl, nitrogen triiodide, ozone, oxygen difluoride, phosphorus, potassium, silver azide, sodium and sodium carbide. When heated it emits highly toxic fumes and will react with water or steam to product toxic and corrosive fumes. Bromine is incompatible with a wide variety of materials including alkali hydroxides; arsenites; ferrous, mercurous salts; hypophosphites and other oxidizable substances. Vaporizes rapidly at room temperature.
Combustion products Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
NFPA Health 3
Flammability 0
Reactivity 0
Special O

 

Health.
Exposure limit(s) OSHA PEL: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/m3) ST 0.3 ppm (2 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 3 ppm
Poison_Class 2
Exposure effects Effects may be delayed.
   Ingestion May cause severe and permanent damage to the digestive tract. Causes gastrointestinal tract burns. May cause perforation of the digestive tract. May cause systemic effects. May cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, possibly with blood.
   Inhalation Irritation may lead to chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns, breathing difficulty, and possible coma. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. May cause systemic effects. May cause acute pulmonary edema, asphyxia, chemical pneumonitis, and upper airway obstruction caused by edema.
   Skin Contact with liquid is corrosive and causes severe burns and ulceration. May cause skin rash (in milder cases), and cold and clammy skin with cyanosis or pale color.
   Eyes Causes eye burns. May cause permanent corneal opacification. May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.

First aid
   Ingestion Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
   Eyes Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).

 

Transportation.
UN number 1744
Response guide 154
Hazard class 8
PRTC T
Packing Group I
USCG CHRIS Code BRX
HS Code 2801 30 90
Std. Transport # 4936110

 

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